Compass survey

Compass survey

In civil engineering, it is most important to select the best survey methods according to the nature of land, time, money and accuracy needed. Chain surveying is used where the area to be surveyed is small and flat. However, when we need to survey in large areas, chain …

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Terms used in Levelling Survey

Terms used in Levelling Survey

The method of determining relative altitudes of points on the surface of the earth or beneath the surface of the earth is called levelling. The instrument used for levelling is provided with either external type telescope or internal type telescope. In modern surveying instruments, internal focusing telescopes are …

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Surveying is the art of determining the relative position of various points above, on or below the surface of the earth. The relative positions are determined by measuring horizontal distances, vertical distances (elevations), horizontal angles and vertical angles accurately using various surveying instruments. After taking the measurements in …

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Foundation Engineering

foundation design

Foundation is the low part of the structure which transmits the load of the structure to the ground. The foundation is a buried structure and we cannot see it directly as superstructure. This fact creates bias-ness in designer towards the superstructure which foundation remain given less importance. So, …

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Properties of aggregate


Aggregate is an important constituent in concrete. It occupies about three-quarters of the volume of concrete, it contributes significantly to the structural performance of concrete, especially strength, durability, and volume stability. Properties of aggregate Because of the following properties of aggregates are used in a huge amount in …

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Thermal design of a building

Thermal design of a building

For non-conditioned building, it calculates temperature variation inside the residential building over a specified time and helps one to estimate the duration of uncomfortable periods. Various heat exchange processes square measure attainable between a building and therefore the external atmosphere. Heat flow by conduction through various building elements …

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Dampness in the buildings


The penetration or excess of moisture inside the building from its walls, floors, or roof is known as dampness in the buildings. Sources of Dampness in the buildings The following are the main sources due to which dampness occurs in the building. Moisture penetrating into the building through …

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