The process of flowing soil in sloppy lands along with the stones, small plants, and other things is known as a landslide. It is the result of a complex interaction of the geographical environment. There are various factors to cause the landslide i.e: heavy rainfall, melting snow, earthquake, volcanoes, deforestation, road construction, overgrazing, exploitation of mineral resources and other human activities.
Overpopulation and various constructive activities in mountain areas create landslide problems. Landslide damages residential and industrial developments, agricultural and forest land and highways. They also have a negative impact on the quality of water in rivers and streams and crates various diseases.
Apart from the substantial loss of property, many people are killed by a landslide. Thus landslide problem is a major problem in the modern context and for the reduction of landslide hazards, a great deal of effort must be done.
It can be done by various mitigating techniques such as regional landslide studies and mapping, monitoring and giving awareness about the disastrous aspects and landslide control works.
Purposes of the study in landslide.
The purpose of this study of the project are:
- By increase awareness about the social and economic impact of landslides.
- To develop a geologic and socio-economic understanding of landslide problems.
- To share the knowledge with other countries and to provide the facility for safer and effective development.
The landslide problem
For the mountainous areas landslide can be the major cause of social and economic loss especially in the rainy season. Due to overpopulation, there is the expansion of agricultural activities by destroying the forest in slope areas as well as overexploitation of mineral resources have accelerated the landslide process and increased the economic cost of landslide damage.
Impact of landslide
A landslide destroys residential and industrial development, agricultural, forest land and highways. They also have a negative impact on the quality of water in rivers and streams and the risk of various diseases.
Factors causing landslide
- Geological conditions, including rock and soil types, their strength and structure.
- The amount, duration and intensity of rainfall.
- Melting snow.
- Effects of earthquakes.
- Deforestation and overgrazing.
- Human activities and developmental works.
Landslide control works
- By the constructing surface drains, groundwater drains and retaining walls.
- By removing soil from the head of the landslide and dumping it.
- Doing river structure work.
- By stopping overgrazing and fire in the forest.
- By prohibiting constructive activities in sloppy areas.
- Increase planting vegetation in slope areas.
- By raising awareness among people.
- By organizing and providing consulting and extending services for landslide program.
In the mountainous areas, people have suffered more fatalities from landslide than the people of plain areas. In the mountainous areas especially the impact of a landslide on the development is great and is apparently growing. They damage residential and industrial development, agricultural and forest land and highways.
The best and most common method of landslide control is the reforestation of the slope areas and the construction of check dams in the valleys.
The landslide hazard management programs are necessary in order to effectively meet the need for reducing losses from landslide disaster.
- Identification of landslide hazard areas, a compilation of landslide inventories and landslide mapping.
- Rehabilitation of lands subjected to landslides and development of regulation controlling unstable terrain.
- Specific standards of design and construction of physical control measures in the public and private sectors.
- Development of national landslide loss reduction program and the identification of central organization for the management of the program.