Foundation Engineering

foundation design

Foundation is the low part of the structure which transmits the load of the structure to the ground. The foundation is a buried structure and we cannot see it directly as superstructure. This fact creates bias-ness in designer towards the superstructure which foundation remain given less importance. So, …

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Properties of aggregate


Aggregate is an important constituent in concrete. It occupies about three-quarters of the volume of concrete, it contributes significantly to the structural performance of concrete, especially strength, durability, and volume stability. Properties of aggregate Because of the following properties of aggregates are used in a huge amount in …

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Thermal design of a building

Thermal design of a building

For non-conditioned building, it calculates temperature variation inside the residential building over a specified time and helps one to estimate the duration of uncomfortable periods. Various heat exchange processes square measure attainable between a building and therefore the external atmosphere. Heat flow by conduction through various building elements …

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Hydrograph and its assumptions

Hurricane_Irene_flood Hydrograph

It is defined as the hydrograph of direct runoff resulting from unit depth (1cm) of rainfall excess occurring uniformly over the the basin and at a uniform rate for a specified duration (D hour). Assumption of unit hydrograph (i) The effective rainfall is uniformly distributed within its duration …

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Dampness in the buildings


The penetration or excess of moisture inside the building from its walls, floors, or roof is known as dampness in the buildings. Sources of Dampness in the buildings The following are the main sources due to which dampness occurs in the building. Moisture penetrating into the building through …

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Building Materials


While talking about building materials, it will be better to recall the history of the development of human civilization. The use of building materials starts from the beginning of the Neolithic period when man learned to make weapons of stones, metal ore, arrows etc to kill the animals …

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