Thermal design of a building

For non-conditioned building, it calculates temperature variation inside the residential building over a specified time and helps one to estimate the duration of uncomfortable periods. Various heat exchange processes square measure attainable between a building and therefore the external atmosphere.

Heat flow by conduction through various building elements such as walls, roof, ceiling, floor etc. Heat transfer also has taken place from different surfaces by convection and radiation. Besides, solar radiation is transmitted through transparent windows and is absorbed by the internal surfaces of the building. There is also evaporation of water leading to a cooling result.

Heat is also added to the space due to the presence of human occupants and the use of lights and equipment’s. Due to metabolic activities, the body continuously produces heat and exchanges heat with its surrounding by convention, radiation, evaporation and conduction.

If heat is loss, one feels cool. If heat is gain, one feels hot. Movement of air affects the rate of perspiration which in turn affects body.

Thermal comfort

Thermal insulation keeps the room cool in summer and hot winter. This results in comfortable living. State of warmth balance of the body is thermal comfort. The fluctuations of this heat balance causes discomfort.

The metabolism that generates heat in the body depends on the daily life cycle of
human being state of activities, fatigue and recovery. Unfavorable climatic conditions affects daily life cycle resulting stress on body and mind causes discomfort, loss of efficiency and may eventually lead to a breakdown of health. Human response to the thermal atmosphere depends to an excellent extent on the benefit with that the body is in a position to control the warmth balance in such a, way that the internal body
temperature is 37.4o C.

Thermal performance of a residential building depend upon:

  1. Geometrical dimensions of building element such as wall, roof and window, orientation, standing devices etc.
  2. Material properties (density, specific heat, thermal conductivity transitivity etc)
  3. Weather data (Solar radiation, ambient temperature, wind speed, humidity etc.)
  4. A building’s usage data (Lighting and equipment, air exchanges

What points should be consider during design of residential building ?

  1. Exterior walls should be thicker which impacts strength to the building.
  2. Construction of cavity wall protects the building from outside heat or cold.
  3. Top terrace of the building should be insulated against heat economically by using special flooring method.
  4. In the construction of walls, roofs, floors etc to fill air spaces in construction materials and heat insulating material.

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