Tiles are thin slabs used for covering roofs, for flooring or for making drains and may be formed of brick earth burnt in kilns or concrete. Brick earth used for manufacturing bricks tiles is more pure and is prepared more thoroughly than the one used for manufacturing bricks. Tiles, being thinner require careful burning.
Types of Tiles
1) Roofing Tiles: a) Plain Tiles b. Pan Tiles c. Pot Tiles d. Allahabad Tiles
2) Flooring Tiles
3) Wall Tiles
4) Drain Tiles
5) Glazed Tiles
The clay product manufactured from ordinary clay mixed with sand, and crushed pottery by burning at low temperature are known as earthenware. It is generally soft and porous material. They are liable to damage by atmospheric action. They should not absorb more than 18 % by weight.
Earthenware is used for making ordinary drain pipes, partition block, and electrical cable material.
It is the process of forming some transparent film over the surface of brick, tiles, earthenware, and stoneware to improve upon their appearance and also to protect them from the action of the weather, sewage, chemical or other destroying agents. A glaze is a glassy coat of thickness about 0.1 to 0.2 mm thickness applied on the surface of an earthenware item and then fused into place by burning at high temperature. Glazing may be transparent like glass or opaque like enamels. For obtaining colored glazes, the oxide and salts of various metal or special refectory coloring agents are added.
Methods of Glazing
- Transparent Glazing
- a) Salt Glazing
- b) Lead Glazing
- Opaque Glazing: Glazing Materials are quartz, feldspar, boric oxide, oxides of tin, zinc, lead, China clay etc.