According to the necessary, the selection of stairs for a building is done. There are different types of stairs used in residential and commercial buildings. We briefly discussed here, about the types of staircase.
A stair is a set of steps suitably arranged for connecting the floors of the buildings for convenient access. The main purpose of stairs is to provide an easy, comfortable, and safe way to access different floors of buildings. Timber, stones, steel, or reinforced cement concrete is used to construct the stairs in buildings.
A. Types of stairs according to Methods of Construction
1. Straight Stair: These types of stairs are used when space is limited. They are floor to floor with or without landing. There is no change in direction on any flight. They are easy and simple to construct and are used when a stair hall is long and narrow. They are economical and traditional type.
2. Dog Legged or half turn stairs: These types of stairs are popular and common in residential buildings. It has two straight flights with landing across two flights at the change of direction (i.e 180 degrees). It is also called U shaped stairs or half turn stairs. It is the same as open new well stair but spacing in the middle is less. These stairs consume less space.
3. Open well stair: The stairs in which there is a rectangular or other geometrical openings in the middle between two flights is called open-well stair. It is similar to dog-legged stairs but has a larger space between flights. Mostly used in public buildings. The opening can be used for fixing lift.
4. Quarter turn Stair: A stair in which flight moves straight and bent at a 90 degree with quarter space landing. It changes its direction either left or right through one right angle. It is provided when the wall is on the wall. Winders may be provided for the economy and landing is provided in the position of direction change.
5. Spiral stairs: Usually spiral stairs are made from steel by welding them together. Although, spiral stairs are not safe because they generally have winder steps. It moves rounded in one fixed point and has one circle of diameter 1 or 1.2 m. One fix pipe is provided in the middle. They are cheaper and economical. These stairs are suitable for less space and built to use on emergency conditions.
6. Bifurcated Stair: The stair which is so arranged that a wide flight goes straight and subdivided into two narrow flights in the left and right direction. Used in prestigious buildings such as big plazas, shopping malls, and houses. It is suitable for the public buildings at their entrance hall.
7. Circular Stairs: The staircase in which steps go up in circular shape is called circular stairs. It is provided where space is limited and traffic is low. Also, used for aesthetic purposes.
8. Geometrical Stairs: Geometrical stair is curved in shape in which landing is also rounded in the middle section.
B. Types of stairs, according to Materials Used
1. Steel Stairs: Normally these types of stairs are used in exceptional or rare cases. Mostly, mild steel (MS) or cast iron is preferred to make these stairs. They make a lot of noise when used and didn’t look good. They are used as fire escape stairs or back stairs. Steel stairs need to protect from moisture air because of their rusting nature. So, to protect from corrosion on a regular basis enamel coating or painting is required. Mostly spiral stairs are used in steel stairs because of their size, weight, and cost.
Also Read: 10 basic requirements for good stairs
2.Timber Stairs: Timber stairs are light in weight and easy to construct. But it has poor resistance to the fire. Normally used only for small residential buildings and on those houses which are made up of wood only. Timber stairs are unsuitable for high-rise buildings such as public and commercial buildings. A well-seasoned timber of good quality that can resist fungal and insect attack for a long period of time is used. Timber is well treated with chemicals before they are used.
3. Stone stairs: Stone stairs are rarely used nowadays. The construction cost of stone stairs is high but not as strong and durable as concrete stairs. Well shaped stone and skilled manpower are required to build stone stairs.
4. Concrete Stairs: Mostly in public buildings and residential buildings, concrete stairs are used. Reinforced concrete stairs are designed as slabs and it requires structural analysis of load. They are fire resistance and also strong and durable. Form of stair and individual treads and risers may vary as required. Due to cantilever designs, an aesthetic view can be given.
5. Bricks Stairs: They are used for making external steps and sometimes for internal use too. The steps must be formed of first-class bricks that withstand wear and makes a strong bond with mortar.
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